Provosts

 

The Office of Provost

 

All solemnly professed members of the community belong to the chapter.  This is the central body of the community. On the right, Propst Bernhard clothes Dom Michael as a new canon.  He receives the sign of his solemn profession: the purple mozzetta.  The Dean, other canons and members of the community observe. 


By implication there are members of the community who are not members of the chapter.  This group is principally composed of the following:

The head of the community is the superior.  For the Canons Regular of St. Augustine of the Austrian Congregation, he is called Provost (Propst in German) from the Latin praepositus ("the one who is put forward").  The members of the chapter may elect the provost to serve a term or for life.

 

To read about what the Constitution of the Austrian Congregation of Canons Regular of St. Augustine say about the office and ministry of the provost, <click here>.

 

Those who exercise authority and responsibility over others are bound both by their office and in charity to notice and correct other men's faults.  They should not do so out of any desire or pleasure to punish them, but only when the need arises; then they must act in their fear of God and in His Name, and with a desire to save souls.

 

-- Walter Hilton Can. Reg.

 


A List of the the Provosts of Klosterneuburg

 

Klosterneuburg has had 66 provosts in its history.  With the exception of two four year lapses at the end of the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth centuries, the community has enjoyed stable and continual self-governance for nearly 900 years.

 

Secular Canons

 

1. Otto I

1114--1126

2. Otto II

1126--1132

1132 Cistercian

1138 Abbot of Morimond

1138 Bishop of Freising

3. Opold

1132--33


 

 

Canons Regular

 

4. Hartmann I of Polling

 

<click here> for a biography.

1133--1140

1140 Bishop of Brixen, Tyrol

5. Marquard I of Polling

Born before 1100 and brother of Gerhoh of Reichersberg, he entered Stift Rottenbuch in 1123 and probably was one of canons who accompanied Bl. Hartmann in 1133. As provost, he was given the honor of bearing a crosier.  He participated in the provincial synod of Salzburg in 1150.  He died on January 11, 1167. 
 

1140--January 11, 1167

6. Rudiger I of Polling
 

Stepbrother of Gerhoh of Reichersberg and Marquard, Rudiger entered the service of the Bishop of Augsburg in 1124.  His zeal for reform later led to his expulsion and he went to Reichersberg.  Between 1161 and 1163 he became dean of Klosterneuburg.  Though Bl. Hartmann wished him to succeed him in Neustift, he was unable to take that office.  Rather he succeeded his brother as Propst of Klosterneuburg in 1167, where he governed briefly.  

 

1167--August 29, 1168

7. Wernher
 

One of the most energetic and important of the provosts, he secured the Stift's economic foundation for generations to come.  In addition to the economic life, under him were produced other important works, like the Collectio Claustreneoburgensis, which included the first necrology and annals. Wernher also commissioned the Verdun Altar.

 

1168--25 November 1185, resigned

8. Gottschalk
 

The most important event to occur during his reign was the May 26, 1187 Bull of Pope Urban III, who confirmed the privileges belonging to the community as a token of gratitude for their support during the Investiture Struggle.

 

1185--August 30, 1192

8a. Wernher (his second term)
 

Briefly governing for a second time, he left to become bishop of Gurk, where he died in 1194.

 

1192-July/August 1194

1194 Bishop of Gurk

9. Otto III

 

August 13, 1194--September 9, 1194

10. Rudolf I

 

September 1194--February 12, 1195

11. Dietrich Purger

 

Suffering poor relations with the bishop and Leopold VI, he was deposed after a lengthy reign.

 

1195--1216, deposed

12. Wisinto

 

He governed for three years, but resigned for unknown reasons.

 

1216--1219, resigned

13. Walther

 

He was elected provost of Klosterneuburg while he was dean at St. Florian.

 

1220--July 21, 1224

14. Marquard II

 

While provost, he served as visitor to the canonical and monastic houses of the Diocese of Salzburg.

 

1224--1226, resigned

15. Konrad Goltstein of Vienna

 

1226--March 12, 1257

16. Nikolaus I

 

Pope Alexander IV gave him the privilege of using pontifical insignia in 1260.  He participated in the Metropolitan Synod in Vienna and the Ecumenical Council of Lyons. 

 

March 18, 1257--January 4, 1279

17. Pabo

 

January 8, 1279--August 26, 1291/93

18. Hadmar the Donkey (or Ass) of Gaaden

 

On account of his miserable mismanagement of the Stift, both spiritually and financially, he was deposed by the Visitors in 1301.  He actually tried to return to the Stift by force, but was repulsed.  It is unknown what happened to him subsequently or where he died.

 

1293--May 26, 1301, deposed

19. Rudiger II

 

He held the position of Kitchen Prefect before his election as provost.  He died in November 1306, six months after his resignation.

 

May 26, 1301--March 25, 1306, resigned

20. Berthold I

 

Before his election as provost he held the positions of infirmarian and head cellarer.  He is buried in the Stift church in front of the altar dedicated to St. Augustine.

 

1306--May 29, 1317

21. Stephen of Sierndorf

 

Sometimes considered a second founder, this son of a knight was ordained deacon in 1289 and put in charge of the hospice.  He was elected provost in 1317.  A man of vision, he supported various cultural and artistic initiatives, earning the Stift a high reputation.  He completed the west and north wings of the cloister, decorated with precious stained glass and added four splendid paintings to the rear of the Verdun altar. 

 

However, as a result of his heavy-handed management, there was much strife between him and the Chapter.  This led to his deposition by a visitation of Bishop Albert of Passau in 1323.  However, Pope John XXII intervened and reinstated him in 1324, annulling the deposition.  It was providential since the great threat to the existence of the community soon struck.  A terrible fire broke out in 1330, devastating the church and most of the Stift.  It was thanks to Stephen that the community survived this disaster and pressed onward.  He died five years later and was buried in the middle of the Stift church.    

 

May 1317--November 24, 1335

22. Nikolaus II of Neidhart

 

He was dean before being elected provost and was buried in the now defunct St. Nicholas chapel.

 

November 1335--September 3, 1336

23. Rudwein von Knappen of Haselbach

 

The son of a knight, he died during the plague year of 1349.

 

September 4, 1336--October 12/13 1349

24. Ortolf of Wolkersdorf

 

Though his election as provost was contentious, he later went on to govern successfully.  Pope Innocent VI awarded him and his successors the use of pontificals and the crosier.  Also during his reign, in 1358 Duke Rudolf asked Pope Innocent VI to open the cause of Leopold III.  Permission was given and the process began.  It would not be completed for another hundred and twenty-seven years!  He was buried in a tomb near St. Leopold in the chapter house.

 

 

October 13, 1349--April 24, 1371

25. Koloman of Laa

 

Entering Klosterneuburg in 1349, he became custodian of the treasury or "Custos" in 1353 and then dean from 1366 to 1371. Then he was elected provost.  On February 20, 1382, the Cardinal Legate permitted Koloman and his successors to wear pontifical shoes (sandalia).  He resigned for unknown reasons and died a couple months later on September 20th.  He was buried in the Stift church.

 

April 25, 1371--July 24, 1394, resigned

26. Peter I Lenhofer

 

Prior to his election as provost he was infirmarian and head cellarer. While provost, he served on the Duke's Council.  It was under his direction that the south tower of the Stift church was constructed.

 

July 24, 1394--July 17, 1399

27. Bartholomaeus of Pierbaum

 

Already a canon and Kitchen Prefect in 1368, he was pastor at St. Martin's in 1371 and became dean in 1375.  After governing as provost for ten years, he resigned and died on June 9, 1413.

 

July 1399--July 17, 1409, resigned

28. Albert Stöck

 

It is very likely that he was from Klosterneuburg itself.  Elected provost in 1409, he spent a considerable amount of time at the Ecumenical Council of Constance (October 1414-November 1415).  He resigned as a result of the visitation of 1418 and died on April 23, 1423 and is buried in the Chapter House near St. Leopold.

 

1409--July 23, 1418, resigned

29. Georg I Muestinger of Petronell

 

Born in 1387, he first appears in the historical record as dean in 1417.  On the occasion of the visitation of the reform commission stemming from the wishes of the Council of Constance, and with the consent of the Chapter, he was elected provost to succeed Albert Stöck.  He was shortly thereafter named visitor for the archdiocese of Salzburg.  As part of his task as a reformer, he reformed the habit of the canonesses of St. Mary (later St. Mary Magdalene) in 1418 to include rochet and sarozium.  This venerable house of canonesses in Klosterneuburg dated to at least 1160.

 

Though not attacked directly during the Hussite Wars (1423-28), the Stift was forced to financially support  the war effort and many of its holdings were plundered or damaged.  In 1434, Provost Georg attended the Council of Basel for two months.

 

Georg encouraged and strongly encouraged the scholarly endeavors of the canons, especially with respect to astronomy and cartography.  He himself authored several works on astronomy and was in contact with other leading astronomers of his time.

 

He died in 1442 and was buried in the St. Nicholas chapel.

July 24, 1418--September 30, 1442

30. Simon I vom Thurm of Klosterneuburg

 

After holding a number of offices in the community, he was elected provost in 1442, but resigned on account of ill heath.  He died on August 31, 1451.

 

October 1, 1442--July 28, 1451, resigned

31. Simon II Heindl

 

A Doctor of Canon Law, he was ordained in 1436 and later served in Heiligenstadt 1448-51. He became provost on July 28, 1451.  It was during his administration in particular that Christian Humanism in the persons of Wolfgang Winthager and Johannes Swarcz, flourished at the Stift and contacts between the canons and the University of Vienna grew.  Simon was in the entourage of King Ladislaus Posthumus during his pilgrimage to Rome in 1453.  That same year, the canons were given a dispensation with respect to wearing the almutium in choir during the summer; a lighter, cloth substitute was thereafter permitted. In 1455 Simon also reordered the habit of the novices, making it easier to distinguish them from the professed members of the Chapter.  The present day habit derives from this initiative.  Finally, in 1463, Archduke Albrecht VI rewarded the Stift for its loyalty to him by awarding the community a share in the lucrative salt monopoly of Hallstatt.  He resigned in 1465 and lived another ten years, dying on April 16, 1475.

 

July 28, 1451--1465, resigned

32. Johannes Hechtl

 

Under his reign the canonization process for Leopold was brought to its conclusion in 1485 and he promoted the community's various artistic and cultural endeavors.  Moreover, the production and decoration of books and manuscripts as well was the formation of a library blossomed during his reign.

 

At this time Vienna was erected as a diocese, though interestingly enough, Klosterneuburg remained under the Diocese of Passau until 1729.

 

September 14, 1465--June 27, 1485

33. Jakob I Paperl

 

Pastor in Heiligenstadt (1474-82) and head cellarer (1482-85) before his election as provost, Emperor Friedrich III appointed Jakob I to his Council and named him chaplain in 1492.  Emperor Maximilian did likewise in 1497.

 

Under Jakob, the famous "Babenberger Family Tree" was painted and Ladislaus Suntheim wrote his noteworthy history of the Babenberg family.

 

On February 15, 1506 the canons translated the relics of St. Leopold.  The date was delayed for so long due to the schedule of the the Emperor, who wished to be present.  The Archbishop of Salzburg presided, while numerous other prelates were in attendance.  This date was for a long time a holiday in Klosterneuburg. 

 

 

July 1, 1485--August 12, 1509

34. Georg II Hausmanstetter

 

Raised in Styria, he entered Klosterneuburg and served in Heiligenstadt (1506-09) until he was elected provost.  He improved the financial basis of the Stift considerably and enjoyed good relations with the Emperor.  However, these were tumultuous times and Martin Luther unleashed the chaos of his reformation.  A visitation of religious communities of Lower Austria conducted in 1528 reported that all but Klosterneuburg and the Capuchins in Vienna had abandoned the Catholic faith.  It is thanks to Provost Georg that Klosterneuburg remained faithful.  Unfortunately, his successors proved to be far less worthy leaders.  In 1529 the Stift was evacuated as a result of the invasion of the Ottoman Turks.  Though there was considerable damage and loss of life, the canons were able to return to the Stift later that year.  In 1531, King Ferdinand I brought him to be one of his councilors at the Imperial Diet in Speyer.  While the Stift remained stalwartly Catholic while Georg lived, less felicitous circumstances quickly developed upon his death.

 

August 14, 1509--December 3, 1541

35. Wolfgang Hayden of Klosterneuburg


Born in Klosterneuburg in 1484, this provost held numerous positions in the community before his election.  He reigned during very difficult years.  The town of Klosterneuburg increasingly adhered to Lutheranism and so too the parishes belonging to Stift.  As a result of the increasingly hostile environment and the heavy burdens of war taxes, the Stift itself fell into disrepair and the very life of the community dissolved.  He resigned in 1551 and died on December 7, 1552 at the age of 68.

 

December 30, 1541--1551, resigned

36. Christoph I Starl of Klosterneuburg

Born in 1528 in Klosterneuburg, Starl, a faithful Catholic, was unable to prevent the collapse of the canonical life at Klosterneuburg as the rest of the community became Lutheran and he was treated with hostility.  Such was the strain of his life that he died young on April 13, 1558 at the age of thirty!  With his passing, the Protestant domination of the Stift was no longer hidden and was now proclaimed openly.

 

July 7, 1551--April 13, 1558

37. Peter II Hübner

The collapse of religious life at Klosterneuburg was not taken lightly by the imperial authorities.  The Imperial Commissioner, Bishop Urban of Gurk and the Knight, George of Mäming, suggested at the next election the appointment of the Provost of Herzogenburg.  The suggestion was rejected and instead the Chapter elected Peter Hübner. 

 

bner was not a promising choice.  Only four years earlier on November 14, 1554 he had been sent away for drunkenness to Wittingau, only to be reinstated in August 1555.  His governance of the Stift was a disaster.  The report from the visitation of 1561 summarizes the scandalous state of the house: thirteen canons, six concubines, eight children and a gluttonous consumption of wine.  The remonstrations that resulted from the visitation bore no fruit with Hübner.  As a consequence of his sham wedding in the Stift church in 1562 (presided over by the Dean), he was finally suspended on September 3, 1562.  On January 8, 1563 he was excommunicated and removed from office.  He left the Stift in July, 1563 and disappeared. 

 

Hübner's life does however end on a hopeful note, as he died between 1593-1595 after a long illness in a house belonging to the Stift in Vienna as a penitent reconciled to God and the Church.

 

June 1558--January 8, 1563, deposed for heresy

38. Leopold Hintermayr of Hochwang

 

The February 6, 1564 election of Christoph Reym as successor to Hübner was not acceptable to the Imperial Commission.  Only later that year was a comprise candidate found and elected.

 

Hintermayr was a Bavarian, born in 1521 in Hochwang.  He entered the Stift in 1541.  The report of the Visitation of 1563 describes the condition of the the Stift as Hintermayr became provost: seven canons, seven concubines, three spouses and fourteen children.  Wine consumption continued to increase as well.  In addition, he faced a financial catastrophe.  Choosing between rectifying immorality or insolvency, he chose to deal with the latter, ignoring the dismal state of the religious life.  Reform would have to wait until the next provost.

 

It was during Hintermayr's long reign that the last canoness of St. Mary Magdalene, Apollonia Khatzler, died on March 20, 1568.  He himself died while on a visit to St. Dorothea in Vienna on April 10, 1577.

 

 

October, 1563--April 10, 1577

39. Kaspar Christiani of Arendsee

 

Born in Lower Saxony in 1541, Kaspar studied under the Jesuits at the University in Dillingen and came to Vienna in 1565.  By 1573 he was Dean of St. Stephen's Cathedral.  Five years later he was obliged to take up the difficult task of reforming Stift Klosterneuburg.  On January 30, 1578 he was clothed as a canon regular and at the same time made his solemn profession.  A month later Pope Gregory XIII granted the request that Christiani be dispensed from the novitiate and he thus became provost.  His short six year reign was decisive in the history of the Stift as he successfully reintroduced the Catholic faith and religious life into Klosterneuburg.  Moreover, he brought about significant, if incomplete, success in reforming the Stift parishes.  He died at the age of 43 and was buried before the high altar in the church.

 

February 28, 1578--January 15, 1584

40. Balthasar Polzman of Vienna

 

One of the Catholic reformers brought into the Stift in 1578 by Provost Kaspar Christiani, Polzman was born in Vienna, though he had served as a priest elsewhere.  With the permission of the Nuncio, Graf Bartholomäus of Portia, Polzman became dean while he was still a novice!  Pope Gregory XIII dispensed Polzman from the remainder of his novitiate in July and he made his solemn profession on the Assumption of Our Lady in 1578.  In 1580 he became administrator of the Premonstratensian Abbey of Geras.  He returned to Klosterneuburg and became provost on March 5, 1584.  While Christiani had successfully reformed the house, Polzman focused on the reform of the parishes.  His efforts bore fruit and many Lutherans returned to the Catholic faith.

 

March 1584--June 6, 1596

41. Thomas Rueff of Vienna

 

Following the death of Provost Balthasar Polzman, the Chapter elected Andreas Weissenstein on December 18, 1596.  However, for one reason or another, his election was not recognized by the Emperor and for four years the office was left vacant until Thomas Rueff, a secular priest, was imposed on the Stift.

Thomas Rueff, a Doctor of Philosophy and
Law, at different times a professor on the Faculties of Philosophy and Law at the University of Vienna, a canon of St. Stephen's Cathedral, the dean at Lorch and a member of the Imperial Council, was clothed and installed as provost on June 28, 1600.   While provost he continued his academic career, becoming dean of the Law Faculty in 1602 and rector of the University in 1608.

 

July 1600--November 10, 1612

42. Andreas Mosmiller of Landsberg

 

After Rueff's death, the Chapter continued to suffer interference from the government with respect to the election of a new provost.  Three Men were elected but not confirmed by the Emperor before Andreas Mosmiller was finally imposed on the community as Rueff had been.

 

Provost Andreas Mosmiller was born in Bavaria on December 1, 1575.  He was clothed as a novice on May 25, 1597 and thereupon held a number of positions in the house.  He was sent to Stift St. Dorothea in Vienna to serve as their provost in 1610.  When called upon to govern Klosterneuburg in 1616, he continued on as provost of St. Dorothea for two more years.

 

During his reign the medieval dormitory was renovated through the installation of permanent walls which replaced older, wooden partitions, as well as the enlargement of the windows.  Other buildings were expanded as well.  Among the various economic activities of the Stift, the most notable were the underwriting of the newly founded house of Camadolese monks on the Kahlenberg, the acceptance of responsibility for the goverance of the parish of Kühnring and other locations, and finally the purchase of Schloss Hagenbrunn and Reinprechtspölla.

 

April 1616--December 1, 1629

43. Bernhard I Enoch Waitz of Salzungen

 

Born in 1590 in Salzungen in Thüringen (Thuringia), Bernhard entered Stift Klosterneuburg in 1621 and solemnly professed on the Feast of St. Augustine in 1622.  Elected provost in 1630, he reigned for thirteen years. 

 

The most important initiative Provost Bernhard undertook was the first phase of the baroque renovation of the church.  This included adding stucco to the interior of the church and the restoration of the organ.  The project continued until 1645. 

 

In 1635, Bernhard was also given the task of overseeing two canonries in Bohemia: Wittingau and Forbes, both of which had fallen on hard times.  Thanks to financial support as well as personnel from Stift Klosterneuburg, these two nearly extinct communities were revitalized.  By 1663 they were both capable of self-goverance and remained in existence until Emperor Joseph II suppressed them in 1785.

 

January 16, 1630--April 11, 1643

44. Rudolf II Tobias Millner

 

Born in Kestnholz in Alsace in 1598, the future provost entered the community in March, 1624 and was professed the following year.  As provost he received permission from the  the Bishop of Passau to observe the liturgical Propers of the Augustinian Canons, the Proprium Canonicorum Regularium Sancti Augustini, on December 22, 1643.  He also received a gift of a clock from Leonhard Löw of Löwenberg for the church.

 

June 9, 1643--September 13, 1648

45. Bernhard II Schemddingh of Münster

 

Born on September 19, 1613 at Münster in Westphalia,

he was clothed as a novice on January 16, 1639.  Before

becoming provost he was pastor in Kierling and then Korneuburg.

This long-reigning provost and his successors received the

title "Imperial Counsellor" in 1651.  The visitation of 1660 went

well and in 1663 the Emperor proclaimed St. Leopold patron of

Austria and fixed November 15th as a holiday.  Thereafter it was

the custom of the Imperial House to attend the liturgy and festivities

at Stift Klosterneuburg on the feast whenever possible.
 

December 14, 1648--November 9, 1675

46. Adam I Scharrer of Krems

 

Born on August 1, 1631, this provost became a Doctor of Philosophy as well as holding various position in the Stift before his election on December 15, 1675.  Under his governance, the baroque renovation of the chapel of St. Leopold, the former chapter house, was undertaken.  In addition, at the end of his reign, the second phase of the baroque renovation of the church began (1680-1702). 

 

Just two years before his own death in 1679, a deadly plague struck Klosterneuburg and nearby areas.  Several canons died on account of their pastoral care of their people in the face of this catastrophe.  The devastation wrought by the plague was extensive, however there remained the consolation of the faith and the hope offered by the Sacraments.  For example, future Provost Christoph Matthäi gave Last Rites to approximately 1,000 victims, ensuring that they would depart this world with confidence and hope.

 

December 1675--February 13, 1681

47. Sebastian Mayr of Eberschwang

 

Provost Sebastian governed the Stift during one of its greatest crises: the Ottoman Turk siege of Vienna in 1683.  Born in Bavaria, he held a number of positions in the community before he was elected provost. 

The Ottoman siege of Klosterneuburg began on July 18, 1683 and lasted until September 8, 1683, the Nativity of Our Lady.  At this point the entire community fled to St. Nikola in Passau or Ranshofen in the west, except for the young priest, Wilhelm Ignaz Lebsafft and the laybrother, Marzellin Georg Ortner.  While Lebsafft cared for the spiritual needs of the town, Ortner organized the defense of the upper city and Stift.  Though the city was damaged, the Ottomans were repelled every time they attacked.

 

When Provost Sebastian and the Chapter returned to the Stift on October 5th, they found Lebsafft dead.  Left in a weakened state by his zealous priestly work, he contracted dysentery and died on October 4th.  Ortner survived the trial and was honored for his heroic efforts in defense of the Stift and the city.

 

May 4, 1681--June 21, 1686

48. Christoph II Matthäi of Neustadt

 

Born in Neustadt in Unterfranken (Lower Franconia) in 1638, he entered Klosterneuburg on November 25, 1657 and went on to serve in a number of Stift parishes before becoming dean and later provost.

During his twenty year reign, the Stift continued to buy or receive gifts of property.  Moreover, in 1703 the Stift financed the construction of a new town, Neulerchenfeld.  This was one of several settlements that Klosterneuburg founded  In 1704 the Stift become home to an enormous barrel (it could hold 860 buckets of wine) which became famous due to its size.

Provost Matthäi resigned early due to illness and died on December 17, 1707.

 

October 1686--January 26, 1706 resigned

 

49. Jakob II Cini

A Master of Liberal Arts, a Doctor of Philosophy and a Protonotary Apostolic, Provost Jakob governed only briefly.  Born in 1668, he entered the Stift on All Saints' Day in 1685  and was ordained a priest in October 1692.  Elected provost on February 28, 1706, he received his blessing on June 24 of the same year and died on December 6th.

February 1706--December 6, 1706

50. Ernst Johannes Perger of Horn


Doubtless is Ernst Perger one of the most influential provosts of Klosterneuburg.  His initiatives changed the face of the Stift as a community and as a complex of buildings.

This Master of Liberal Arts and Philosophy as well as Doctor of Theology was born in Horn on December 6, 1667.  He was clothed as a novice on the Feast of the Assumption, 1685, professed on the Epiphany in 1687 and offered his first Mass on October 5, 1692, the same day as the previous provost, Jakob Cini.  Prior to becoming provost he was the dean from 1699-1707.  As provost, he likewise held the position of dean at the Faculty of Theology at the University of Vienna in 1709 and a year later became Rector Magnificus of the university itself.

 

The achievements of his reign were numerous.  In 1714  Johann Baptist Känischbauer gave the canons the exquisite "Veil Monstrance" depicting in metalwork and precious stones the Legend of the Veil.  This was to celebrate the 600th anniversary of the foundation of Stift Klosterneuburg.  Provost Ernst also took advantage of the festivities surrounding the anniversary of the consecration of the church on the feast of St. Michael to suppress the traditional canonical habit.  The white linen cassock and surplice were replaced by the black woolen cassock and sleeveless, bell-shaped linen shirt or smock, called the sarozium.  On Sundays and feast days the canons wore rochetts in choir.  It should be noted that while the canons wore the new version of the habit, the novices retained the white linen cassock and surplice until 1772.

In addition to the reform of the canonical habit, Provost Ernst also decided to discontinue the practice of clothing laybrothers.  The last laybrother, Laurenz Jakob Kraus, died on January 18, 1733.  There have been "choir brothers" since then, but their cases were extraordinary.

Provost Ernst also completed the third stage of the baroque renovation of the church (1723-30).  New hand-carved choir stalls were added in 1723-24 and a new marble high altar was installed in 1726-28.  Both the choir stalls and high altar were designed by the famous baroque artist active in the Vienna area, Matthias Steinl.  In 1729 Donate Felice rearranged the Presbyterium and the windows were likewise remodeled.  Also in 1729, the Stift took delivery of the so-called Leopoldiornat, a heavy gold and silk pontifical set of vestments still used on the Feast of St. Leopold to this day.

 

Meanwhile, the Refectory was also renovated (1725-28).  New art was added as well as a chancel or pulpit for the table readings.  Monastic seating order was retained, later to be suppressed by Provost Ambros Lorenz.

Besides the church, the entire Stift was slated for an completely new plan according to the wishes of Emperor Charles VI who wished to have an "Austrian Escorial".  He employed Felice as the architect and a grandiose plan was drawn up.  The first stone was laid by the Stift's Chamberlain, Ambros Schmid on April 30, 1730 and a liturgical cornerstone-laying ceremony was celebrated on May 25th by the Provost.  The Emperor lived only long enough to enjoy one meal at his not yet completed imperial residence at the Stift on the Feast of St. Leopold, 1739.

 

1739 was the year Stift Klosterneuburg confederated with the  Lateran Congregation, the most venerable of the congregations of canons regular.  One of the benefits of this union was that the Stift was given the rights and privileges of that congregation.  In thanksgiving, the Stift would offer every three years a solemn celebration of the Assumption of Our Lady for the growth and well-being of the Lateran Congregation.  The Provost henceforth bore the title "Lateran Abbot" and the canons, "Lateran Canons."  As well, the Stift was entitled to full exemption through this aggregation.  However, it seems that while this was probably one of the principle motives behind the union, this never came about in reality.  Therefore the Stift remained in practice  under the governance of the bishop.

Provost Ernst's brief but fruitful, four-year reign ended on Christmas Eve, 1748 with his death.

 

January 1707--December 24, 1748

51. Berthold II Johannes Paul Staudinger

Born in 1703 in Waidhhofen an der Ypps, Berthold entered the Stift on September 12, 1723, was professed in 1724 and ordained in 1729.  Like his predecessor he was a Master of the Liberal Arts and Philosophy and a Doctor of Theology.  He held a number of positions in the community before his election as successor to Provost Ernst Perger.

 

Besides governing the community, Provost Berthold also played a role in the goverance of Lower Austria and from 1753 onward he was named adminstrator of Stift St. Pölten.  He oversaw the construction of a residence for the Stift in Vienna as well as various acquisitions, including vineyards in Nussdorf, Heiligenstadt, Kahlenbergerdorf and Klosterneuburg. 

At the behest of Empress Maria Theresia, Pro
vost Berthold accepted the mandate to assist in the rural missions in Upper Austria, Carinthia and Styria.  He sent his canon, Wilhelm Sebastian Hätzland, Master of Philosophy, who during his three year mission (1753-56) met with great success.  Where others failed earlier, he brought many Protestants back into full communion with the Catholic Church.

Pro
vost Berthold died on March 16, 1766 in Vienna.

 

February 1749--March 16, 1766

52. Gottfried Johannes von Roleman

Born on October 1, 1729 in Vienna, this future provost carried on the tradition of scholarship of his predecessors.  Like them, h
e was a Master of the Liberal Arts and Philosophy and a Doctor of Theology.  He was clothed on December 17, 1747, professed on December 21, 1748, ordained a priest on September 22, 1753.  He was a cooperator in Heiligenstadt, the Custos and cellarer before he was elected to succeed Provost Berthold.

His most important contribution to the Stift was the foundation of the Stift's own theological faculty in 1768.  It began humbly with two
canons as professors, one teaching speculative theology, the other practical theology.  However, the promise of this faculty would not be realized until the 19th Century, as Emperor Joseph II closed all theology faculties except for imperial faculties in 1783.

 

May 1766--March 8, 1772

53. Ambros Ignaz Lorenz of Vienna
 

A Master of the Liberal Arts and Philosophy, this future provost was born in 1721 and worked in Heiligenstadt, Kierling, Leopoldau and Korneuburg before his election.

It was Provost Ambros who relocated the Stift library from the Altstift (old Stift) to the northeastern tracts of the Neustift (new Stift) and he himself took possession of a new apartment in the Neustift for the use of the provost in 1775.  The following year witnessed the last time that the Imperial Household attended the festivities for St. Leopold.

In 1778 the Stift reformed its junior Latin school, which dated to the 15th Century, into a proper secondary school.  The Stift pastor served as the principal.  The Stift operated the school for almost 125 years before it was finally closed in 1921 due to financial difficulties.  The building was taken over by a public school.

 

Provost Ambros also replaced the wooden tabernacle with a new silver one in the church in 1780-81 and under him a new 16 pipe organ was constructed for the southern gallery.  He died in 1781.
 

 

May 1772--November 8, 1781

54. Floridus Johannes Leeb of Nikolsburg

 

The Doctor of Theology and Master of the Liberal Arts and Philosophy was born in Nikolsburg in Moravia on May 8, 1731.  He entered the Stift in 1749 and was ordained in 1755.  Before his election as provost, he held the positions of librarian (1766), novice master (1766-73) and dean (1770-82).  He was also appointed dean of the Faculty of Theology at the University of Vienna in 1786.

 

Elected in 1782, he governed the community during perilous times.  Not since the Protestant Reformation had thecanonical life been so threatened.  Ironically, this danger came from the same institution that restored the canonical life to the Stift after its self-destruction under the influence of Lutheranism: the Emperor.  The new emperor, Joseph II, was very different from his mother, Empress Maria Theresia.  His ecclesiastical policies were worldly and utilitarian in their ends.  For this reason, all forms of religious life in the Austrian Empire lived with the threat of extinction.

 

In April, 1782, Pope Pius VI took the unusual step of traveling to Austria to remonstrate with the Emperor.  During his visit, on April 20th, the Holy Father visited the Stift.  His efforts to forestall the Emperor's designs were unsuccessful.  On November 11, 1782 Stift St. Dorothea in Vienna was merged with Klosterneuburg, making Provost Floridus administrator of the Viennese canonry.  Just four years later Emperor Joseph II suppressed Stift St. Dorothea altogether. 

In 1783, Emperor Joseph II decreed that all priestly formation would be given exclusively in imperial seminaries.  All other faculties of theology were closed including the school at Klosterneuburg.  The threat of Josephinism, as the Emperor's policies are called, was very real.  Many religious houses were suppressed and others were made more "useful" by imposing various "practical" activities on them.  During those years Stift Klosterneuburg had several more parishes imposed on it.  While this was not as detrimental to the canonical life as it was to other forms of religious life, it certainly burdened the community. 

If there was a spiritual need for these parishes, their construction would be a positive development.  However the Emperor's plan was less concerned with the spiritual health of his subjects, than with the usefulness of the Church as an arm of civil administration.  The affects of this bureaucratization of pastoral life in the Austrian Empire was not without negative consequences. 

In 1786 the Stift financed the construction of a new settlement of thirty houses on the east bank of the Danube, which thereafter was named Floridsdorf after the Provost.  The Stift also assisted the families to rebuild their homes after extensive flooding in 1787.  Also in 1786 the Stift purchased the complex on the Leopoldsberg and its surrounding woods and enacted a program of land reform.  In 1787 the Stift opened a bakery which endured until 1814.

 

Emperor Joseph II died and was succeeded by Emperor Leopold II, who upon the death of the last provost of the canonry of St. Pölten in 1791 appointed Provost Floridus and his successors to the dignity of the Head Chaplain of the Ancestral Lands of Austria (Oberst Erblandhofkaplan von Österreich).  In 1796 the Provost requested and received permission to re-establish the school of theology at Klosterneuburg.  On January 3, 1797 classes began again, covering the first two years of studies.  Subsequently this modest program grew into a complete theological education.
 

He died on August 13, 1799.

 

February 16, 1782--August 13, 1799

55. Gaudenz Andreas Dunkler of Piesling


Like his predecessor, Provost Gaudenz was born in Moravia.  He governed through the trials of the Napoleonic Wars and the uncertain peace that followed the Congress of Vienna.

Ordained a priest in 1771, he served as a confessor at the pilgrimage church in Hietzing, novice master (1770-1800), librarian (1795-1800) and dean of the Faculty of Theology at the University of Vienna (1795) before his election as provost in 1800.  A Doctor of Theology, his strong interest in education led him to double the two year program at the Stift School of Theology to four years in 1801.  The next year he was chosen to be the Rector Magnificus at the University of Vienna.

Also in 1802, an imperial decree settled the question of the ownership of the wealth of the suppressed Stift St. Dorothea.  Klosterneuburg at this time came into possession of the Albrecht Altar which now stands in the St. Sebastian Chapel.  Part of its importance derives from the fact that one of its panels possesses the oldest known representation of Vienna.  The next year Klosterneuburg took possession of the Dorotheerhof, or residence, on the Plankengasse in Vienna. 

Twice during the Napoleonic Wars (1805-6 and 1809) the Stift was occupied by French troops.  The occupation led to a dispersion of the canons and cost a great deal of money.  However this did not prevent the canons from carrying on their work.  In fact 1806 saw the production (at the expense of the Stift) of a new, four-volume Hebrew edition of the Old Testament under the direction of Dr. Johannes Jahn and with the assistance of four of the canons.

A second French occupation of the Stift took place in 1809.

 

March 1800--November 29, 1829

56. Jakob III Ruttenstock of Vienna

 

This Doctor of Theology was born on February 10, 1776 and entered the Stift on October 6, 1795.  Ordained in 1800, he served as confessor at the pilgrimage shrine in Hietzing, a professor of Church History at the Stift's School of Theology, novice master, professor at the faculty of Theology at the University of Vienna, principal for the Stift's school, Censor Librorum and Director of the Oriental Academy.  He was elected provost in 1830 and continued to serve in numerous other roles as well.  He was deeply involved in the oversight of the Austrian educational system and was named Rector Magnificus of the University of Vienna in 1838.

 

In the Stift, numerous renovations were undertaken.  The painting of the Nativity of Our Lady was placed above the High Altar, where is hangs to this day; the Verdun Altar was relocated to its present place in the old Chapter House, which had already become the St. Leopold's Chapel, where pilgrims by the thousand venerated the relics of the Holy Margrave; and the construction of the New Stift was finally brought to its completion.  The latter dramatically altered life for the canons, since it brought with it a new refectory, a new library and new living quarters. 

 

Outside, the Stift's garden was layed out in the English manner and a crypt for the canons was built in the city cemetery, where Ruttenstock would be buried.  The Stift also took over the parish in Jedlesee and Strebersdorf and paid for the construction of a new church in Meidling, dedicated to St. John Nepomuk.

 

June 8, 1830--June 22, 1844

57. Wilhelm Ludwig Sedlaczek

 

Born in Moravia on July 6, 1793, the future provost was ordained on September 1, 1816 and served as a professor of Moral Theology at the Klosterneuburg School of Theology for many years.  At the same time he was novice master and was appointed Preacher to the Imperial Court (1820-1840) and religion teacher to the children of Archduke Karl (1832-1844).

 

Provost Wilhelm commissioned a new chapel to accompany the new crypt for the deceased canons in 1846 and built a new building for the Stift's school in 1852.  That same year the Stift bought the ruined Cistercian Abbey of Horn, whose chapter house and a portion of the cloister remained intact and were transferred to the Stift. 

 

October 16, 1844--June 20, 1853

58. Adam II Schreck of Vienna

 

In 1855 the Stift bought property in Hungary, all of which was lost in 1919 during the Communist uprising of Bela Khun, then returned later that year and finally expropriated permanently in 1944.

 

October 12, 1853--March 29, 1871

59. Berthold III Ignaz Froeschl of Weinsteig

 

August 4, 1871--August 17, 1882

60. Ubald Ewald Kostersitz of Litta

 

November 22, 1882--October 2, 1902

61. Bernhard III Johannes Peitl

 

January 8, 1903--October 6, 1906

62. Friedrich Gustav Piffl of Landskron

January 9, 1907--April 1, 1913

thereafter Archbishop of Vienna

63. Joseph Eduard Kluger of Reitendorf

June 18, 1913--November 9, 1937

1919-1937 Abbot General

64. Alipius Joseph Linda of Vienna

November 25, 1937--April 29, 1953

1946-1953 Abbot General

65. Gebhard Ferdinand Koberger of Vienna

October 20, 1953--November 18, 1995

resigned

1954-1987 Abbot General

1968-1974 Abbot Primate

66. Bernhard IV Hermann Backovsky

December 14, 1995--

2002--elected Abbot General